Every time we walk run sit or stand the user bones muscles and joints these provide support to a body and help form our shape without these important body parts. It could be difficult to do our day-to-day activities. However, like any other body part bones too are susceptible to various injuries and diseases.
So what are the common orthopaedic issues? and how do we deal with them low back pain? It is a common problem among young and old this can be irritating and even disabling. Sometimes we have solutions for all your problems the commonest cause for backache is a disc prolapsed. We know that in this point there are about seven in the cervical spine 12 in the dorsal spine five in the lumbar and the sacrament coccyx.
There are soft cushion like substances in between the bones that is known as this when that goes behind its compresses the now and produces sciatica. Orthopaedic specialist are very good in operating with a micro described it one inch incision with a one-day stay they will comfortably discharging the patron similarly in a spondylolisthesis. That is congenital deformities wherein they use instrumentation reduce the deficits and then fix the spine similarly in TB spine when where the entire bone is destroyed Orthopaedic specialist remove the destroyed bone and replaced with a cage. So that the length of the spinal column is maintained many patients have hypertension diabetes and a concealed heart problem unless they take special care to evaluate the patient from the point of these co morbid conditions otherwise.
They will end up with some complications every patient is submitted for three to four days in a multi-specialty consultation. Before the patient is taken in for surgery the aging process is inevitable and human joints are not immune to this imagine the amount of stress and strain the human joints take to help with your mobility day in and day out. Without one thing age patients develop arthritis in their joints when the medical management like giving the painkillers and lifestyle changes do not give them enough relief from the pain.
They require joint replacement surgery when Orthopaedic specialists are told they needed surgery such as a knee replacement surgery, they are naturally worried about this. Because Orthopaedic is a surgery which is classed as a major surgery and there are some complications and risks involved in these surgeries. Orthopaedic specialists counsel them thoroughly the patient and the family together. Orthopaedic specialists tell them clearly the risks and the benefits of the surgery and also reassure the operation. You've done in the safest environment with the least possible risk to the patient with the right treatment at the right time we help you get back on your feet without pain and enjoy life to the fullest injuries to knee hip shoulder or elbow are common during sports.
These injuries were not treated on time or not assessed properly can cause further damage at care. Orthopaedic specialist see lots of sports persons and as athletes who come in with sports injuries on a regular basis the only thing at the back of their mind is to when they can get back to the sports and at care we have a patient-centred approach where we treat each patient on an individual basis starting from the time of his dopey consultation where the clinical diagnosis is made in a perfect way subsequent to that. If the patient is decided to go on for a non-operative treatment. Orthopaedic specialists follow them up at the physiotherapy department and see them on the outpatient on a regular basis.
They have all the flexibility that is needed. So that the schedule for the physiotherapy department is fitted in between his training sessions and they aim at getting an ultimate recovery of the patient in a very quick time at the theatres and care by hospitals. They have state of art equipment which helps us do these surgeries on a keyhole surgery basis using the arthroscopic technique. This helps and fast recovery of the patient and it's also economically very viable for the patients because the patients most of the patients are discharged the same day.
Accidents shatter lives whether it is a road accident or a simple fall at home injuries can occur in any form and affect any part of the body. A team approach and a cross-functional customized plan makes all the difference while treating and managing injuries most of the patients when they have road traffic accidents. The most important thing is the golden hour wherein patients need to be brought in as quickly as possible and also have a consultant led trauma service here. We do operate in the middle of the night whenever it is required and at times. Orthopaedic treatment can be life saving or limb saving treatment which is normally done as an emergency our nurses are very much committed to the patients and they do form a very important part of our team with the help of physiotherapy.
Orthopaedic Surgeons are able to achieve these excellent results which they have been able to achieve in the last three years. So when patient is coming with a pen water maybe the pain with a traumatic pain or any normal pain first. The patient will complain that how much time it will take to reduce pain. So first thing they'll explain them and make given assurance that then. The pain will be reduced in few days depending upon their condition psychologically.
Orthopaedic specialists give them training and anxiety, the patients will come with a lot of anxiety first we'll reduce their anxiety and psychologically then slowly we start the treatment will explain how the treatment will go on what all the eggman. Orthopaedic specialists have used what does equipment do and what the excises we are doing and we train the patient in such a way in pain free limit only. Whatever amount they are able to do, whatever moment they can do it, without pain and we take a prior assessment and we show them. The difference that how was the first day and after one week they take the assessment and we'll explain them and they'll show them in the result so no matter what your ortho problem is. At hospitals, Orthopaedic specialists will ensure that without effective treatment and advanced rehab programs you will lead a pain-free good quality life even after discharge.
There are some risk factors for the hip that the hip can come out of the socket or the spine can develop a curve, which is not obvious right from the start and it is good to see a muscular-skeletal specialist try and screen for these conditions and I would always encourage parents to see to get the children to see an orthopaedic surgeon from the beginning. Surgery and cerebral palsy can involve the upper limbs, lower limbs, or the spine or hips. Most often we do surgeries for the lower limbs in cerebral palsy because one of our primary issues for children with cerebral palsy is difficulty walking or in a normal pattern of walking which we want to improve on.
We also do surgeries for the spine and the hips in cerebral palsy in children who are not walking because of the high risk of spinal deformity development of hip subluxation. The timing of surgery for children with cerebral palsy depends on whether they're walking, they're not walking. It also depends upon the degree of cerebral palsy they have, the degree of contractures, and the factors that play into that. We usually optimize the surgery depending on the underlying conditions of the child and there's no set timing of predetermined protocol that we follow for the timing of surgery. Having said that, for a lot of children with cerebral palsy who are ambulant we do aim to do all the surgeries one shot, which is called a single event multiple-level surgery, which is surgeries at multiple areas addressing multiple issues one stage. And we like to time that before the big growth spurt starts or after the growth spurt has ended. The risks of orthopaedic surgery in children with cerebral palsy are generally slightly higher. These risks are often related to the degree and extent of cerebral palsy that the child has.
In children who are non-ambulant who have feeding issues and seizure issues, their nutrition is compromised, and so wound healing and bone healing is an area of concern. In children who are walking and ambulant who have a lot of spasticities, the predominant concern is the recurrence of the deformities that we correct over time as they grow. To avoid this we often have an integrated program where Orthopaedic specialists have their therapists working with the children before and after surgery and we use orthotics to try and maintain the corrections that we have the update.
All orthopaedic deformities in cerebral palsy do not need surgery, we always look at what are we trying to achieve in terms of maximizing function or improving the ability of caregivers to give care to the dependent child. There are often deformities that are present that do not interfere with these functions and so we always try to balance risk versus benefit to determine if whatever we're doing for the child is beneficial and if it isn't we don't need to and in children with cerebral palsy like I said, there are deformities that don't interfere with their function.
The role of orthopaedic surgery is to try and reduce tone, correct muscle imbalance, prevent dislocations, align the lower extremities, so that the child can walk to the best capacity. And in this way surgery helps to improve their gait, reduce the energy required for walking, and thereby increase their stamina and endurance. There are different forms of cerebral palsy based on the type of neurological involvement depending on the injury to a portion segment of the brain. In children with spastic and mixed cerebral palsy orthopaedic surgery has a big role in improving the quality of life. However, in children with ataxic cerebral palsy and dyskinetic cerebral palsy surgery is not known to play a significant role in altering their function.
Cerebral palsy's a neurological condition that arises from damage to the immature brain. The damage to the brain results in the child being unable to use the muscles appropriately and this leads to problems with function and gait. Problems in cerebral palsy can be put into two categories, primary problems, and secondary problems. The primary problems are related to brain injury and include muscle tone issues, weakness, lack of coordination and balance, gait, and posture issues. The secondary problems in cerebral palsy come from distorted growth of bones and muscles that occur as the child grows, due to the primary problems that are in the background. And so we end up getting upper limb contractures, lower limb contractures, spinal deformities, hip dislocation and gait issues in children walking that preclude their gait.
The results from orthopaedic surgery that we obtain are not temporary, they are gainful benefits that last for the child and however, there are as factors in a child with cerebral palsy the risks of recurrence with growth or new deformities or new issues that creep up. And a strong way to try and minimize that is to be in an active rehabilitation program with the occupational therapist and the physical therapist involved, and that's the kind of program that we have.
The other important issue is the use of braces and repeated follow-ups overtime to ensure that we have maintained the successes that we have obtained. Here at Johns Hopkins, we have a multidisciplinary approach and we have multiple specialists from each of these fields that could evaluate the child with cerebral palsy and help in determining the right pathway. We have physical therapists, occupational therapists, physiatrists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, also, two pediatric orthopedic surgeons. Our approach is teamwork to determine the best pathway, and we have an excellent rehabilitation program. This team approach for us I think is the biggest strength that Orthopaedic specialists are in helping children with cerebral palsy.